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The influence of nest keeping and preparation methods on the microbiota associated with backyard chicken eggs

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dc.contributor.advisor Venter, P.
dc.contributor.advisor Theron-Swanepoel, H.
dc.contributor.advisor Lues, J.F.R.
dc.contributor.author Moalusi, Boitumelo M.
dc.contributor.other Central University of Technology, Free State. Faculty of Health and Environmental Sciences. School of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences
dc.date.accessioned 2014-10-08T21:34:14Z
dc.date.available 2014-10-08T21:34:14Z
dc.date.issued 2005
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/11462/60
dc.description Thesis (M. Tech.(Environmental Health)) -- Central University of Technology Free State, 2005 en_US
dc.description.abstract In developing countries such as South Africa commercial chicken farmers produce the majority of eggs, approximately 5.8kg of eggs per capita per annum. Despite this, many people, especially in rural and marginal-urban areas, still consume eggs produced by backyard systems. Backyard systems are characterised by fragmented and small-scale production units that require minimal management and chickens are often unhoused or poorly housed. In most cases, eggs from backyard systems are laid in nests in poor hygienic condition. Eggs are a cheap, readily available and a good source of animal protein and are consumed by the majority of the people in the community, including the young, the old and people with HIV/AIDS. With little information available regarding the microbiological quality of eggs produced by backyard chickens in Southern Africa, the risks posed by these eggs to consumers are unknown. In this study the microbiological quality of eggs from randomly selected household near Hennenman keeping backyard chickens was determined. The study was done over three seasons which included the cold-dry (May-July), mild-dry (October- February) and the warm-wet (August-September) seasons. The following organisms were isolated: Salmonella spp., Pseudomonas spp., Staphylococcus spp., Escherichia coli and Total Coliforms. Staphylococcus spp. was further characterised to species level. Most of the species were of human origin, with the exception of only two species, S. hyicus and S. lentus, which have previously been associated with chickens. Furthermore, questionnaires were administered to the backyard chicken keepers to assess their knowledge regarding chicken keeping and nest hygiene, the proper method of egg collection and storage, and the preparation of eggs. The decrease of vitamins and Staphylococcus spp. occurring during different preparation methods (scrambling, frying and boiling) was also determined. The results obtained showed that the eggshells were more contaminated than the egg contents. This had been expected as the eggshell is more in contact with the external environment than the egg contents are. Faecal contaminants (Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli and Total Coliforms) were present in both the eggshell and the egg contents during all seasons and this could be attributed to the infrequent cleaning of chicken nests as ascertained from the questionnaires. From the vitamin analysis it was observed that backyard-produced eggs had lower concentrations of vitamins A and E compared to commercially-produced eggs. When determining the best preparation method, causing the most degradation of Staphylococcus spp., while on the other hand preserving vitamins, it was found that scrambling was the best method, followed by the frying and boiling methods respectively. en_US
dc.format.extent 397931 bytes, 1 file
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf
dc.language.iso en_US en_US
dc.publisher Bloemfontein : Central University of Technology, Free State
dc.subject Central University of Technology, Free State - Dissertations en_US
dc.subject Chickens - Eggs and nests en_US
dc.subject Eggs en_US
dc.subject Chickens - Nests - Hygiene en_US
dc.subject Developing countries en_US
dc.subject Pathogenic microorganisms - Identification en_US
dc.title The influence of nest keeping and preparation methods on the microbiota associated with backyard chicken eggs en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US
dc.rights.holder Central University of Technology, Free State

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