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Characterisation and static behaviour of the DMLS Ti-6AI-4V for Bio-medical applications

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dc.contributor.advisor Booysen, G.
dc.contributor.author Ramosoeu, Makhabo Khabiso Ellen
dc.contributor.other Central University of Technology, Free State, Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering
dc.date.accessioned 2015-08-03T07:33:26Z
dc.date.available 2015-08-03T07:33:26Z
dc.date.issued 2015
dc.date.issued 2015
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/11462/275
dc.description Thesis (M. Tech. (Engineering: Mechanical)) -- Central University of Technology, Free State, en_US
dc.description.abstract The Centre for Rapid Prototyping and Manufacturing (CRPM) at the Central University of Technology, Free State (CUT) manufactures implants using Electro Optical Systems (EOS) titanium Ti-6Al-4V alloy powder (further referred to as EOS Ti64 powder) by means of Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) process on the EOSINT M 270 machine. For this reason, there is a need to characterise and acquire knowledge of the basic properties of direct metal laser sintered EOS titanium Ti-6Al-4V alloy samples (further referred to as DMLS Ti64 samples) under static tensile loading in order to provide the CRPM with engineering design data. The first objective of this Master’s study is to acquire the characteristics of EOS Ti64 powder in order to ascertain its suitability in the DMLS process. Secondly, the study aims to assess tensile properties and elastic constants of DMLS Ti64 samples produced from the set process parameters of EOSINT M 270 machine. Thirdly, it is to investigate microstructures of DMLS Ti64 samples subjected to different heat treatment techniques which will eventually assist in the determination of a suitable heat treatment technique that will yield higher ductility. Finally, the study aims to validate the static behaviour of DMLS Ti64 samples subjected to the static tensile loading up to a yield point in order to determine failure due to yielding. The samples were manufactured at CRPM Bloemfontein. The metallographic examinations, heat treatment and the determination of mechanical properties were done at the CSIR in Pretoria. Optical Microscope (OM) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) were used to determine microstructures of DMLS Ti64 samples while Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX) analyses were performed using SEM. The samples were heat treated at temperatures of 700, 1000 and 1100°C respectively, and subsequently either cooled with the furnace, air or were water quenched. The mechanical property tests included tensile, hardness and determination of elastic constants. The static behaviour of DMLS Ti64 samples under static tensile load up to a yield point was predicted and verified using ABAQUSTM Finite Element Analysis (FEA). The stress-strain curves from ABAQUSTM were interpreted using MDSolid program. The point of interest was Von Mises yield stress at 0.2% offset, in order to determine failure due to yielding. EOS Ti64 powder particles were spherical in shape and the alpha and alpha+beta phases were identified. As-laser sintered samples possess a very fine and uniform alpha case with islands of martensitic plates; samples were brittle and showed low levels of ductility with an average elongation of 2.6% and an area reduction of 3.51%. Ultrasonic test results showed that DMLS Ti64 samples have Young’s modulus of 115 GPa, Shear modulus of 43 GP, a bulk modulus of 109 GPa and Poisson’s ratio of 0,323 while the density was 4.4 g/cm3. Slow cooling of DMLS Ti64 samples from 1000 and 1100oC resulted in a microstructure constituted more by the alpha phase of lower hardness than those from 700oC and as-laser sintered samples. High hardness was obtained by water quenching. The water quenched samples showed martensitic transformation and high hardness when compared to furnace cooled samples. Beta annealing tailored a microstructure of as-laser sintered samples into a lamellar structure with different lath sizes as per cooling rate. Beta annealing improved ductility levels up to 12.67% elongation for samples furnace cooled for 4 hours and even higher to 18.11% for samples furnace cooled for 34 hours, while area reduction increased to 25.94% and 33.39%, respectively. Beta annealing conversely reduced yield strength by 19.89% and ultimate tensile strength was reduced by 23.66%. The calculated maximum Von Mises stresses found were similar to the FEA interpreted results. The average percentage error, without the stress concentration factor, was approximately 8.29%; with the stress concentration factor included, it was 0.07%. The small reaction forces induced in both x-axis and z-axis contributed to this error of 0.07% between the calculations and ABAQUSTM FEA results. Samples that were not heat treated fell outside the Von Mises criterion and failed due to yielding. This justified the brittleness found in the tensile test results where elongation and area reduction were 2.6% and 3.51% respectively. However, all samples that were heat treated fell within the Von Mises criterion. The objectives of this study were achieved; the mechanical properties were similar to those of standard specification for wrought annealed Ti-6Al-4V alloy for surgical implant applications and EOS GmbH manufacturer’s material data sheet. DMLS Ti64 samples must be beta annealed in order to attain higher levels of ductility. A recommendation was made to further investigate the effect of heat treatment on the other mechanical properties. Furthermore, detailed results of basic properties of DMLS Ti64 samples are provided in the appendices in chart format and were written on a CD disc. en_US
dc.format.extent Application/PDF
dc.format.mimetype 76 038 091 bytes, 1 file
dc.language.iso en_US en_US
dc.publisher Bloemfontein: Central University of Technology, Free State,
dc.subject Central University of Technology, Free State - Dissertations en_US
dc.subject Optical engineering en_US
dc.subject Optoelectronic devices en_US
dc.subject Titanium alloys - Heat treatment en_US
dc.subject Sintering en_US
dc.subject Dissertations, Academic - South Africa - Bloemfontein en_US
dc.subject EOS Ti64 powder, en_US
dc.subject DMLS Ti64 samples en_US
dc.subject heat treatment en_US
dc.subject metallographic examinations en_US
dc.subject ductility en_US
dc.subject 0.2% proof Von Mises yield stress en_US
dc.subject ABAQUSTM FEA. en_US
dc.title Characterisation and static behaviour of the DMLS Ti-6AI-4V for Bio-medical applications en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US
dc.rights.holder Central University of Technology, Free State,

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