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Microbial hazards associated with meat processing in butcheries within Mangaung Metropolitan Municipal area

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dc.contributor.advisor Shale, K.
dc.contributor.author Shilenge, Lebogang. Brenda.
dc.contributor.other Central University of Technology, Free State. Department of Life Sciences
dc.date.accessioned 2015-03-24T13:47:46Z
dc.date.available 2015-03-24T13:47:46Z
dc.date.issued 2014
dc.date.issued 2014
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/11462/248
dc.description Thesis (M. Tech. (Environmental Health)) - Central University of Technology, Free State, 2014 en_US
dc.description.abstract In the battle to sustain and produce quality food that is safe and affordable, the limited legislative and regulatory environment continues to allow opportunities for food to become contaminated during processing. The degree of contamination distributed over the final food product (including meat products) depends upon several factors that include knowledge and behaviour of the food handlers, equipment, the hygiene habits of personnel, and the monitoring that takes place at food processing plants (including butcheries). The current study was conducted in five selected butcheries (forming 15% of the registered butcheries at the time the study was conducted) in the Mangaung Metropolitan municipal area, purposely targeting the ones registered with the municipality. The hygiene practices of meat handlers were assessed (through self-administered questionnaires) because meat is a perishable product that requires labour intensive processing for production of quality products. Thus, mishandling by food handlers may create and maintain conditions favourable to microbial contamination. Furthermore, the study assessed and characterised microbial contamination on working surfaces and utensils through swabs as well as bioluminescence instrument [Adenosine Tri-phosphate (ATP) Hygiena] for cleanness of the working environment. Concomitant to the above, meat handlers’ hands and aprons were also assessed for possible microbial contamination as well as their characterisation. Lastly, aerosolised microbes [through an air sampler (Surface Air System) SAS Super 90] were also collected for iv quantification and identification during working hours as airborne microbes can settle on working surfaces and/or utensils as a result of movement of workers and other related working processes. Statistical points such as correlations, standard deviations, group standard deviations as well as significant differences were captured per respective chapter where necessary. Data reported in this study is over 3 month period with two weeks intervals during sampling and thus reported as either weekly or rounds between sampling periods. The results of the current study indicate that the food safety objectives are negligibly achieved, indicating a need for proper food safety training which is audit based. On administration of a questionnaire, food handlers showed poor knowledge of food safety awareness coupled with poor attitude and behaviour in terms of food safety. The five butchery premises were further examined regarding the airborne and surface microbial loads, as well as that of the food handlers’ hands, during processing. The microbial loads in the air appeared to comply with the suggested limits at all the sampled butcheries. Microbial loads on meat contact surfaces showed levels conforming to the South African standard or guideline of 1 × 102 cfu.m-2. Total Coliforms on hands and on aprons were compared to the general microbial target value of <2.5 cfu.m-2 as suggested by literature. In this study, Matrix Laser Desorption Time of Flight Mass Spectrophotometer (MALDI-TOF MS) was found to be an accurate, rapid and cost effective method towards v identifying of foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria including yeast. Moreover, in recent years South Africa’s meat scandals have increased consumer awareness and the demand for food safety. Section 11 of the Meat Safety Act (Act no. 40 of 2000) stipulates that every abattoir must utilize an independent inspection service appointed by the department of agriculture to ensure that meat of high quality and wholesomeness is produced. However, once the meat and meat products leave the abattoir, they are under the jurisdiction of the local authorities who rely only on visual assessment as opposed to microbiological inspection in the maintenance of their hygiene and quality. Despite the high incidence of foodborne illnesses in both developed and developing countries; South African data on foodborne illness incidents is still insufficient. This could be attributed to the fact that in South Africa, legislation governing the acceptable standards of the levels of microbiota in the air and on food handlers’ hands is still inadequate. Additionally, lack of obligatory usage of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) procedures in the meat premises poses a risk for economic productivity. In conclusion, the identification of airborne bacteria in the butcheries strongly suggests that in the planning of the existing establishments, the building layout, control of the traffic flow of personnel, the durability and imperviousness of floors, the ventilation system and the placement of the equipment were not carefully considered. This may play a role in the prevalence and proliferation of airborne microbes as the resulting establishments provide an environment conducive to the breeding of microbes. vi In regard to swabs, it was concluded that floors may present a high point of contamination possibly through aerosolization of microbial communities. Moreover, cleaning materials and hygiene practices need to be reviewed. The results of the administered questionnaire showed that food handlers should be sufficiently trained with regard to food quality management tools such as Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP), Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) systems and food safety. The evaluation of meat contact surfaces for organic soils to determine their cleanliness using the rapid ATP bioluminescence testing can be convenient for everyone involved in the food chain since visual and touch inspection cannot be conclusive enough to meet regulatory requirements in terms of microbial counts. en_US
dc.format.extent 6 324 589 bytes, 1 file
dc.format.mimetype Application/PDF
dc.language.iso en_US en_US
dc.publisher Bloemfontein: Central University of Technology, Free State
dc.subject Central University of Technology, Free State - Dissertations en_US
dc.subject Slaughtering and slaughter-houses - South Africa - Mangaung en_US
dc.subject Meat - Contamination en_US
dc.subject Meat hygiene en_US
dc.subject Microbial contamination en_US
dc.subject Pathogenic microorganisms - Detection en_US
dc.subject Dissertations, Academic - South Africa - Bloemfontein en_US
dc.title Microbial hazards associated with meat processing in butcheries within Mangaung Metropolitan Municipal area en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US
dc.rights.holder Central University of Technology, Free State

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