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Developing Entrepreneurial Skills In Environmental Health At The Central University Of Technology, Free State Through A Novel Challenge-Oriented Pedagogic Approach

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dc.contributor.author Smith, Elvina, Melinda.
dc.date.accessioned 2021-09-08T09:58:18Z
dc.date.available 2021-09-08T09:58:18Z
dc.date.issued 2020-02
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/11462/2274
dc.description.abstract 25 years since the inception of democracy South Africa is fighting unemployment, poor economic growth, political instability and educational instability. Since the formation of the Government of National Unity in 1994, the South African economy has been unpredictable and unsound. It shrunk by 2.2% in the first few months of 2018, whilst unemployment reached an all-time high percentage above 27%. Higher Education in South Africa, especially universities of technology, face diverse challenges coupled with a reduced chance of employment amongst graduates due to inadequate or lack of the necessary workplace (cognitive; soft) and entrepreneurial skills. The industry demands a more innovative education and training system to ensure a competitive and trend-setting workforce. Due to the increase in economic and social risk, a relevant higher education qualification becomes necessary. This education system should specifically address developing employable graduates, the growing unemployment rate, and the decline in the economy. To initiate possible alternative ways in which teaching, and learning is conducted at higher education institutions, research was conducted amongst academics at Uppsala University, Sweden, University of Mauritius, Mauritius and Central University of Technology, Free State, South Africa. The main aim of the study was to utilise problem-based learning (PBL) and knowledge-based learning (KBL) as teaching methodologies to create a novel teaching and learning methodology referred to as challenge-oriented learning (COL). COL was proposed as methodology for a new blended syllabus for the training of entrepreneurs in a second-year model in Environmental Health. The study is based on an interpretive paradigm with an exploratory nature. A desktop study and document analysis provided a foundation and working framework for the study. The research utilised a mixed methods methodology involving interviews and questionnaires for descriptive and empirical findings. The study revealed that the rigorous transformation efforts in basic education to eradicate the effects of an apartheid government is, after 25 years, characterised by uncertain educating practices, a non-contextualised basic education system and a growing articulation gap between basic and higher education. Furthermore, the formation of universities of technology with a vocational mandate to advance technology transfer for a skilled workforce was a pivotal change in the higher education landscape of South Africa. For universities of technology to produce graduates with an effective technological skill set, a more student-centred teaching and learning methodology is required. The objectives of PBL and KBL were found to express the active knowledge transfer, critical thinking, desire for problem-solving and self-directed study skills required to address employability and unemployment. Through the delineation of entrepreneurship, it was concluded that entrepreneurship contributes to economic and social development; it improves the socio-economic conditions of a community, generates wealth and offers a solution for unemployment. The discipline of entrepreneurship education is a specialised training regime which requires an appropriate teaching methodology and a more constructivist pedagogic approach. The study puts forth a novel teaching and learning methodology called COL. The triangular study conducted between Uppsala University, Sweden, University of Mauritius and Central University of Technology, Free State revealed that there is a pressing need to shift traditional teaching methodologies, and to adopt a more student-centred, active teaching and learning methodology. This methodology would be appropriate to educate the workforce of the future, whilst lecturers should embrace the value of being coordinators and designers of curricula and the courses that they teach. Furthermore, it became evident through this study that the importance of academic freedom that allows lecturers to function relatively autonomously by amending or adjusting course content as market needs fluctuate, needs to be acknowledged and, if needs be, campaigned for. Also, utilising industry as a partner in teaching and learning processes will render subject content valid, reliable and up to date. By applying design thinking, a syllabus for entrepreneurship education was constructed. This syllabus was fused with a second-year Environmental Health module: Food and Meat Hygiene 2. By using COL as teaching methodology, a blended syllabus incorporating the subject outcomes with the outcomes of entrepreneurship was designed to teach entrepreneurship together with subject content. en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.publisher Central University of Technology, Free State en_US
dc.subject Entrepreneurship en_US
dc.subject Challenge Oriented Learning en_US
dc.subject Blended syllabus en_US
dc.subject Design Thinking en_US
dc.title Developing Entrepreneurial Skills In Environmental Health At The Central University Of Technology, Free State Through A Novel Challenge-Oriented Pedagogic Approach en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US

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