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Additive Manufacturing of Devices Used for Collection and Application of Cereal Rust Urediniospores

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dc.contributor.author Pretorius, Zacharias, A.
dc.contributor.author Booysen, Gerrie, J.
dc.contributor.author Boshoff, Willem, H. P.
dc.contributor.author Joubert, Jozua, H.
dc.contributor.author Maree, Gerrie, J.
dc.contributor.author Els, Johan
dc.date.accessioned 2021-01-02T16:32:36Z
dc.date.available 2021-01-02T16:32:36Z
dc.date.issued 2019-05-15
dc.identifier.other 10.3389/fpls.2019.00639
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/11462/2081
dc.description Published Article en_US
dc.description.abstract Optimized inoculation procedures are an important consideration in achieving repeatable plant infection when working with biotrophic rust fungi. Several plant pathology laboratories specializing in rust research employ a system where the collection and application of fungal spores are accomplished using an exchangeable gelatin capsule. Urediniospores are collected from erumpent pustules on plant surfaces into a capsule fitted to a cyclone collector controlled by a vacuum pump. By adding light mineral oil to the same capsule, the spore suspension is then sprayed onto plants by means of a dedicated atomizer (inoculator) connected to an air pressure source. Although devices are not commercially available, modern day technologies provide an opportunity to efficiently design and manufacture collectors and inoculators. Using a process called Additive Manufacturing (AM), also known as “3D printing,” the bodies of a collector and inoculator were digitally designed and then laser-sintered in nylon. Depending on availability, copper or aluminum tubes were fitted to the bodies of both devices afterward to either facilitate directed collection of spores from rust pustules on plant surfaces or act as a siphon tube to deliver the spore suspension contained in the capsule. No statistical differences were found between AM and metal inoculators for spray delivery time or spore deposition per unit area. In replicated collection and inoculation tests of wheat seedlings with urediniospore bulks or single pustule collections of Puccinia triticina and P. graminis f. sp. tritici, the causal organisms of leaf rust and stem rust, consistent and satisfactory infection levels were achieved. Immersing used devices in acetone for 60 s followed by a 2 h heat treatment at 75 C produced no contaminant infection in follow-up tests. en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.publisher Frontiers in Plant Science en_US
dc.relation.ispartofseries Frontiers in Plant Science;May 2019, Volume 10, Article 639
dc.subject 3D Printing en_US
dc.subject Atomizer en_US
dc.subject Cereal Rust Fungi en_US
dc.subject Cyclone Collector en_US
dc.subject Spore Collector en_US
dc.subject Spore Applicator en_US
dc.subject Urediniospores en_US
dc.title Additive Manufacturing of Devices Used for Collection and Application of Cereal Rust Urediniospores en_US
dc.type Article en_US

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