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Development Of An Effective Feeding Regimen Using Dry Chicory (Cichorium Intybus) Roots To Eradicate Zoonotic Helminths In Pigs

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dc.contributor.advisor Dr. Hester Roberts
dc.contributor.advisor Prof. Pieter Fourie
dc.contributor.author Nwafor, Ifeoma Chinyelu
dc.date.accessioned 2020-02-10T06:43:17Z
dc.date.available 2020-02-10T06:43:17Z
dc.date.issued 2018-08
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/11462/2033
dc.description Dissetation en_US
dc.description.abstract The overall purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of dry chicory (Cichorium intybus) roots in eradicating zoonotic helminths of pigs which have been identified as a public health issue and an animal welfare concern. The study was divided into five objectives. Firstly, a concise review of available literature on the anti-parasitic use of chicory in livestock was evaluated to ascertain its suitability for use in this study. It was concluded that chicory roots possess anthelmintic (AH) properties and should therefore be investigated. Secondly, information was obtained with the help of questionnaires from smallholder pig farmers operating in the central Free State Province to determine their level of practical knowledge in issues pertaining to porcine helminthiasis, zoonosis, AH resistance, pre-and post-slaughter practices. Results show that 65 % of farmers acknowledged the problem of intestinal helminths on their farms even though majority were not aware of porcine zoonosis. Seventy eight percent (78 %) of respondents were unaware of AH resistance in some porcine helminth species, while most respondents did not know about the withdrawal periods of some AH before slaughter. Seventy one percent (71 %) practiced the semi-intensive farming system, while 87 % were engaged in continuous flow-barn management practice. These practices aid the proliferation of intestinal parasites. Seventy four percent do not make use of the abattoirs because of affordability. Half of the farmers noted that their piggery businesses were not profitable and it was concluded that smallholder pig farmers need more animal health information from the experts. Thirdly, fecal samples were collected from pigs owned by smallholder pig farmers in the sample areas to determine the pre-mortem prevalence of intestinal helminths in pigs. Parasitology results reveal that three species of intestinal helminths [Ascaris suum (44.5 %), Trichuris suis (50.6 %) and Oesophagostomum dentatum (26 %)] and Coccidia (72.7 %) were identified. Semi-intensive farms, piglets, females and non-dewormed pigs recorded a higher prevalence of helminths than their counterparts. It was concluded that out-door pigs were more susceptible to infections. The risk factors are age, sex, management system and/or geographical location. The fourth objective focused on the post-mortem prevalence of intestinal helminths in pigs. Three abattoirs in the sample area were visited once a month for three months and the faecal contents of slaughtered pigs were analyzed. Results reveal the prevalence of A. suum (16.7 %), T. suis (11.1 %), O. dentatum (11.1 %), Hyostrongylus rubidus (9.3 %) and Fasciola spp (5.6 %). The large intestine recorded the highest prevalence of all the other predilection sites. The study also recorded 46.9 % and 47.1 % prevalence for single and mixed infections respectively. It was concluded that low to moderate intensity of helminth infection occurred in this study even though some species of helminths persisted despite AH administration. These parasites were observed more in pigs that had access to out-door foraging facilities. Lastly, the farm experiment consisted of a 28-day feed trial which was conducted using 20 mixed breed grower pigs to evaluate the efficacy of dry chicory roots in eliminating intestinal helminths (in vivo) from naturally parasitized pigs. Pigs were randomly assigned to four experimental units in a completely randomized design which was semi-intensively managed. Group A pigs were used as control and were fed with the conventional pig grower feed, while groups B, C and D were the experimental groups which had 5 %, 10 % and 15 % chicory inclusion levels in their diets respectively. Faecal samples were collected from all pigs at intervals for parasitological analysis and growth parameters were also measured. Results indicate a 76.2 % reduction in FEC (fecal egg count) of experimental pigs which were plagued with both single and mixed infections of A. suum (89.3 %) and T. suis (82.1 %). There were significant differences (P<0.05) in FEC between groups on the first and last days of the trial. Feed intake recorded significant differences (P<0.05) across all groups in the 1st week with group A having the highest intake, while group D had the lowest rate probably due to the bulk in the chicory diet. Group C had the best Feed Conversion Ratio of 1.8, while group A had the least (2.1). It is concluded that dry chicory roots contributed extensively to faecal egg count reduction and relative growth performance in the experimental pigs. The overall best level of chicory inclusion in this study was recorded at 10 % (group C). en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.publisher Bloemfontein: Central University of Technology, Free State en_US
dc.title Development Of An Effective Feeding Regimen Using Dry Chicory (Cichorium Intybus) Roots To Eradicate Zoonotic Helminths In Pigs en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US

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