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The microbiological composition of milk and associated milking practices amongst small-scale famers in the informal settlement of Monyakeng

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dc.contributor.author Jansen, Kathie Elizabeth
dc.contributor.other Bloemfontein: Central University of Technology, Free State
dc.date.accessioned 2017-05-31T13:19:33Z
dc.date.available 2017-05-31T13:19:33Z
dc.date.issued 2003
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/11462/1030
dc.description Thesis en_US
dc.description.abstract Milking practices have improved with the development of technology and have transformed both small and large-scale production methods, although some rural and peri-urban areas have not adopted these new methods for various reasons. Hand milking is therefore still one of the most frequently used methods, especially for families that own one to six head of cattle. Efficient milking techniques and impeccable hygiene standards are essential when milking is performed by hand. The population that was studied is situated in Monyakeng, the black township of Wesselsbron in the Free State Province in South Africa. The aim of the study was to determine the nature and extent of milking practices of small-scale farmers in the Monyakeng Township and to determine the influence of such milking practiCes on the microbiological quality of the milk produced. The objectives of the study were to determine the presence of contaminating organisms in the milk produced by the typical small-scale farmer, to assess the milking practices of the small-scale farmers, and to draw conclusions regarding possible relationships between milking practiCes and the microbiological composition of milk in order to make sug~estions regarding the improvement of milk quality. The milk quality was assessed from both a microbial point of view and from an ethical perspective, and this assessment includes the milking practice .and the health of the animals. The questionnaire survey provided a means of determining the level of understanding of the respondents in terms of milk handling, milking practice, animal health, structures utilised and respondents' knowledge with regard to personal and general hygiene. Considering the total viable counts, coliforms and E. coIl it was apparent that undesirably high numbers were prevalent, exceeding the national standard by far. Results furthermore indicate that the counts of the coliforms and E. coli differ significantly from summer to winter. The high presence of E. coli found in milk samples points to the fact that although respondents are aware of the importance of avoiding faecal contamination of milk, this is not common practice. Unnoticed illnesses are likely to be one of the causes of the alarmingly high microbial counts found in the study. The respondents are, however, not accustomed to the clinical and sub-clinical signs of mastitis and they are reluctant to associate their cattle with any illness. The general hygiene knowledge of the respondents was good, as shown by the large numbers of respondents who covered the milk with a lid. This is obviously adVisable, and the respondents were, without exception, aware that personal hygiene is important. 100% of the respondents also reasoned that if the cattle were ill the milk quality would be poor and the majority understood the meaning of the term hygiene. Traditional practices are also likely to contribute to contamination of milk and proliferation of micro-organisms. These include practices such as keeping the milk warm for as long as possible in winter and wiping the hands with the tail of the cow. Lack of proper herd management also contributes to very low yield, unhealthy cows and a generally undesirable milking infrastructure. It was finally concluded that a definite relationship exists between milking practice and the microbiological composition of milk in the study area. en_US
dc.format.mimetype Application/PDF
dc.language.iso en_US en_US
dc.publisher Bloemfontein: Central University of Technology, Free State
dc.subject Milking en_US
dc.subject Milking - Free State; South Africa - Wesselsbron - Monyakeng en_US
dc.subject Milk - Microbiology en_US
dc.subject Milk hygiene en_US
dc.subject Milk - Quality en_US
dc.title The microbiological composition of milk and associated milking practices amongst small-scale famers in the informal settlement of Monyakeng en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US
dc.rights.holder Central University of Technology, Free State

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